Power Purchase Agreement (Ppa) from Legal Perspective – Singapore

Power Purchase Agreement (PPA) from Legal Perspective – Singapore

A Power Purchase Agreement (PPA) is a legal contract between two parties, a power generator and a buyer, for the purchase of electricity. In Singapore, the Energy Market Authority (EMA) regulates and oversees the PPA framework to ensure that it meets the needs of the electricity market.

Legal Requirements

The EMA has established the standard terms and conditions for PPAs in Singapore, which are included in the PPA Agreement. These terms and conditions must be adhered to by both parties to ensure that the contract is legally binding.

A PPA in Singapore must include the following:

1. Description of the Power Generation Facility

The PPA should include a detailed description of the power generation facility, including its technical specifications. This is important because it determines the amount of electricity that can be generated and sold to the buyer.

2. Pricing

The PPA should outline the pricing structure, which should be reasonable and reflective of the market conditions. The price should be set in a way that is beneficial to both parties.

3. Duration of the Agreement

The duration of the PPA should be clearly stated in the agreement, and it should not exceed 20 years. This is to ensure that the buyer can recover their investment during the duration of the contract.

4. Termination and Renewal

The PPA should include terms and conditions for termination and renewal. This is important because it provides a way for either party to end the contract if there is a breach of terms or if circumstances change.

5. Performance Standards

The PPA should have performance standards, which should be clearly defined. This is important because it ensures that the power generation facility operates efficiently and that the buyer receives the agreed-upon amount of electricity.

6. Force Majeure

The PPA should include a force majeure clause, which outlines the circumstances under which the contract may be terminated due to unforeseen events, such as natural disasters.

7. Dispute Resolution

The PPA should have a dispute resolution mechanism, in case of any disputes between the parties. This helps to resolve any conflicts that may arise during the course of the contract.


In conclusion, a PPA is a legal contract that must be carefully crafted to ensure that both parties benefit from it. The Energy Market Authority has established the standard terms and conditions for PPAs in Singapore which must be adhered to. It is important that all parties involved understand the legal requirements and obligations of the PPA to avoid any unnecessary disputes.